As this period saw its roots in the 17th century in Rome, the Baroque period had a great influence from the Renaissance. This was the period when the whole of Europe witnessed a rich culture of art, architecture, music, etc. The word baroque comes from the Portuguese word barroco. It means misshapen pearl which contradicts the essence of this period. Baroque period means the period of highly decorated and artistic style of music, dance, architecture, sculpture, etc. Music saw so many changes in this period. Composers of the Baroque period made significant changes in tonality, notations and instrumental playing techniques.
Establishment of opera
Baroque music gained popularity all over Europe and led to the establishment of many operas, cantata, concerto, sonata, etc. One can witness the essence of baroque music in many parts of the world even today. Historians have divided the history of baroque music into three major phases: early, middle and late.
Early Baroque Period Music
As mentioned above that the Renaissance had a great impact on the baroque period, there was a group called Florentine Camerata. That group consisted of intellectuals and scholars of humanism, music, poems, etc. As they unanimously switched to greek music devices, the moment marked its first move to baroque music.
And when modality became the past and the transition of harmony towards tonality began, the period shifted to the baroque era. Moreover, notes became a gone thing and people started focusing on chords. So, this idea got the name of tonality. Besides the heritage of Renaissance polyphony, Claudio Monteverdi developed the new basso ‘continuo’ technique of the baroque.
Middle Baroque Period Music
During 1630-1680, Europe saw significant changes in the administration of the state and churches. As a result, the court system, style of palaces, rising churches started to demand organized public music. It started from the court of King Louis XIV of France and spread throughout Europe as a role model. Moreover, it led to the emergence of public stages like opera, cantata, concerto, etc.
Generally, many composers framed and shaped the music used in the early baroque in their own way. Additionally, some even purchased patents to stage for courts and churches for monarchs.
Late Baroque Period Music
A number of violinists gained popularity in public stages like concerto and many musicians composed hundreds of works during this period.
These were the phases in which music evolved greatly. One can easily determine the differences in the tonality and techniques of musical instruments and the works of composers. In an attempt to get rid of the complexity of late Renaissance polyphonic textures, however, composers in the early baroque period switched to simple harmonic ones.
In the late period, they again strove to adopt the complex polyphonic textures. Generally, Johann Sebastian Bach and Handel of Germany are the most renowned composers of those times. Anyway, there are many instances of great composers from this period too. Therefore, the case of music is always in a state of development and evolution.